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Version: 7.5.x

OAuth Provider Configuration

You will need to register an OAuth application with a Provider (Google, GitHub or another provider), and configure it with Redirect URI(s) for the domain you intend to run oauth2-proxy on.

Valid providers are :

The provider can be selected using the provider configuration value.

Please note that not all providers support all claims. The preferred_username claim is currently only supported by the OpenID Connect provider.

Google Auth Provider

For Google, the registration steps are:

  1. Create a new project:
  2. Choose the new project from the top right project dropdown (only if another project is selected)
  3. In the project Dashboard center pane, choose "APIs & Services"
  4. In the left Nav pane, choose "Credentials"
  5. In the center pane, choose "OAuth consent screen" tab. Fill in "Product name shown to users" and hit save.
  6. In the center pane, choose "Credentials" tab.
    • Open the "New credentials" drop down
    • Choose "OAuth client ID"
    • Choose "Web application"
    • Application name is freeform, choose something appropriate
    • Authorized JavaScript origins is your domain ex:
    • Authorized redirect URIs is the location of oauth2/callback ex:
    • Choose "Create"
  7. Take note of the Client ID and Client Secret

It's recommended to refresh sessions on a short interval (1h) with cookie-refresh setting which validates that the account is still authorized.

Restrict auth to specific Google groups on your domain. (optional)

  1. Create a service account and download the json file if you're not using Application Default Credentials / Workload Identity / Workload Identity Federation (recommended).
  2. Make note of the Client ID for a future step.
  3. Under "APIs & Auth", choose APIs.
  4. Click on Admin SDK and then Enable API.
  5. Follow the steps on and give the client id from step 2 the following oauth scopes:

oauth2-proxy can make use of Application Default Credentials. When deployed within GCP, this means that it can automatically use the service account attached to the resource. When deployed to GKE, ADC can be leveraged through a feature called Workload Identity. Follow Google's guide to set up Workload Identity.

When deployed outside of GCP, Workload Identity Federation might be an option.
  1. Follow the steps on to enable Admin API access.
  2. Create or choose an existing administrative email address on the Gmail domain to assign to the google-admin-email flag. This email will be impersonated by this client to make calls to the Admin SDK. See the note on the link from step 5 for the reason why.
  3. Create or choose an existing email group and set that email to the google-group flag. You can pass multiple instances of this flag with different groups and the user will be checked against all the provided groups.
  4. Lock down the permissions on the json file downloaded from step 1 so only oauth2-proxy is able to read the file and set the path to the file in the google-service-account-json flag.
  5. Restart oauth2-proxy.

Note: The user is checked against the group members list on initial authentication and every time the token is refreshed ( about once an hour ).

Azure Auth Provider

  1. Add an application: go to, choose Azure Active Directory, select App registrations and then click on New registration.
  2. Pick a name, check the supported account type(single-tenant, multi-tenant, etc). In the Redirect URI section create a new Web platform entry for each app that you want to protect by the oauth2 proxy(e.g. https://internal.yourcompanycom/oauth2/callback). Click Register.
  3. Next we need to add group read permissions for the app registration, on the API Permissions page of the app, click on Add a permission, select Microsoft Graph, then select Application permissions, then click on Group and select Group.Read.All. Hit Add permissions and then on Grant admin consent (you might need an admin to do this).
    **IMPORTANT**: Even if this permission is listed with **"Admin consent required=No"** the consent might actually be required, due to AAD policies you won't be able to see. If you get a **"Need admin approval"** during login, most likely this is what you're missing!
  4. Next, if you are planning to use v2.0 Azure Auth endpoint, go to the Manifest page and set "accessTokenAcceptedVersion": 2 in the App registration manifest file.
  5. On the Certificates & secrets page of the app, add a new client secret and note down the value after hitting Add.
  6. Configure the proxy with:
--client-id=<application ID from step 3>
--client-secret=<value from step 5>
--client-id=<application ID from step 3>
--client-secret=<value from step 5>


ADFS Auth Provider

  1. Open the ADFS administration console on your Windows Server and add a new Application Group
  2. Provide a name for the integration, select Server Application from the Standalone applications section and click Next
  3. Follow the wizard to get the client-id, client-secret and configure the application credentials
  4. Configure the proxy with
--client-id=<application ID from step 3>
--client-secret=<value from step 3>

Note: When using the ADFS Auth provider with nginx and the cookie session store you may find the cookie is too large and doesn't get passed through correctly. Increasing the proxy_buffer_size in nginx or implementing the redis session storage should resolve this.

Facebook Auth Provider

  1. Create a new FB App from
  2. Under FB Login, set your Valid OAuth redirect URIs to

GitHub Auth Provider

  1. Create a new project:
  2. Under Authorization callback URL enter the correct url ie

The GitHub auth provider supports two additional ways to restrict authentication to either organization and optional team level access, or to collaborators of a repository. Restricting by these options is normally accompanied with --email-domain=*

NOTE: When --github-user is set, the specified users are allowed to login even if they do not belong to the specified org and team or collaborators.

To restrict by organization only, include the following flag:

-github-org="": restrict logins to members of this organisation

To restrict within an organization to specific teams, include the following flag in addition to -github-org:

-github-team="": restrict logins to members of any of these teams (slug), separated by a comma

If you would rather restrict access to collaborators of a repository, those users must either have push access to a public repository or any access to a private repository:

-github-repo="": restrict logins to collaborators of this repository formatted as orgname/repo

If you'd like to allow access to users with read only access to a public repository you will need to provide a token for a user that has write access to the repository. The token must be created with at least the public_repo scope:

-github-token="": the token to use when verifying repository collaborators

To allow a user to login with their username even if they do not belong to the specified org and team or collaborators, separated by a comma

-github-user="": allow logins by username, separated by a comma

If you are using GitHub enterprise, make sure you set the following to the appropriate url:

-login-url="http(s)://<enterprise github host>/login/oauth/authorize"
-redeem-url="http(s)://<enterprise github host>/login/oauth/access_token"
-validate-url="http(s)://<enterprise github host>/api/v3"

Keycloak Auth Provider


This is the legacy provider for Keycloak, use Keycloak OIDC Auth Provider if possible.

  1. Create new client in your Keycloak realm with Access Type 'confidental' and Valid Redirect URIs ''
  2. Take note of the Secret in the credential tab of the client
  3. Create a mapper with Mapper Type 'Group Membership' and Token Claim Name 'groups'.

Make sure you set the following to the appropriate url:

--client-id=<client you have created>
--client-secret=<your client's secret>
--login-url="http(s)://<keycloak host>/auth/realms/<your realm>/protocol/openid-connect/auth"
--redeem-url="http(s)://<keycloak host>/auth/realms/<your realm>/protocol/openid-connect/token"
--profile-url="http(s)://<keycloak host>/auth/realms/<your realm>/protocol/openid-connect/userinfo"
--validate-url="http(s)://<keycloak host>/auth/realms/<your realm>/protocol/openid-connect/userinfo"

For group based authorization, the optional --keycloak-group (legacy) or --allowed-group (global standard) flags can be used to specify which groups to limit access to.

If these are unset but a groups mapper is set up above in step (3), the provider will still populate the X-Forwarded-Groups header to your upstream server with the groups data in the Keycloak userinfo endpoint response.

The group management in keycloak is using a tree. If you create a group named admin in keycloak you should define the 'keycloak-group' value to /admin.

Keycloak OIDC Auth Provider

--client-id=<your client's id>
--client-secret=<your client's secret>
--oidc-issuer-url=https://<keycloak host>/realms/<your realm> // For Keycloak versions <17: --oidc-issuer-url=https://<keycloak host>/auth/realms/<your realm>
--email-domain=<> // Validate email domain for users, see option documentation
--allowed-role=<realm role name> // Optional, required realm role
--allowed-role=<client id>:<client role name> // Optional, required client role
--allowed-group=</group name> // Optional, requires group client scope
--code-challenge-method=S256 // PKCE

Keycloak has updated its admin console and as of version 19.0.0, the new admin console is enabled by default. The legacy admin console has been announced for removal with the release of version 21.0.0.

Keycloak legacy admin console

  1. Create new client in your Keycloak realm with Access Type 'confidential', Client protocol 'openid-connect' and Valid Redirect URIs ''
  2. Take note of the Secret in the credential tab of the client
  3. Create a mapper with Mapper Type 'Group Membership' and Token Claim Name 'groups'.
  4. Create a mapper with Mapper Type 'Audience' and Included Client Audience and Included Custom Audience set to your client name.

Keycloak new admin console (default as of v19.0.0)

The following example shows how to create a simple OIDC client using the new Keycloak admin2 console. However, for best practices, it is recommended to consult the Keycloak documentation.

The OIDC client must be configured with an audience mapper to include the client's name in the aud claim of the JWT token.
The aud claim specifies the intended recipient of the token, and OAuth2 Proxy expects a match against the values of either --client-id or --oidc-extra-audience.

In Keycloak, claims are added to JWT tokens through the use of mappers at either the realm level using "client scopes" or through "dedicated" client mappers.

Creating the client

  1. Create a new OIDC client in your Keycloak realm by navigating to:
    Clients -> Create client
  • Client Type 'OpenID Connect'
  • Client ID <your client's id>, please complete the remaining fields as appropriate and click Next.
    • Client authentication 'On'
    • Authentication flow
      • Standard flow 'selected'
      • Direct access grants 'deselect'
        • Save the configuration.
    • Settings / Access settings:
      • Valid redirect URIs
        • Save the configuration.
    • Under the Credentials tab you will now be able to locate <your client's secret>.
  1. Configure a dedicated audience mapper for your client by navigating to Clients -> <your client's id> -> Client scopes.
  • Access the dedicated mappers pane by clicking <your client's id>-dedicated, located under Assigned client scope.
    (It should have a description of "Dedicated scope and mappers for this client")
    • Click Configure a new mapper and select Audience
      • Name 'aud-mapper-<your client's id>'
      • Included Client Audience select <your client's id> from the dropdown.
        • OAuth2 proxy can be set up to pass both the access and ID JWT tokens to your upstream services. If you require additional audience entries, you can use the Included Custom Audience field in addition to the "Included Client Audience" dropdown. Note that the "aud" claim of a JWT token should be limited and only specify its intended recipients.
      • Add to ID token 'On'
      • Add to access token 'On' - #1916
        • Save the configuration.
  • Any subsequent dedicated client mappers can be defined by clicking Dedicated scopes -> Add mapper -> By configuration -> Select mapper

You should now be able to create a test user in Keycloak and get access to the OAuth2 Proxy instance, make sure to set an email address matching <> and select Email verified.


OAuth2 Proxy will perform authorization by requiring a valid user, this authorization can be extended to take into account a user's membership in Keycloak groups, realm roles, and client roles using the keycloak-oidc provider options
--allowed-role or --allowed-group


A standard Keycloak installation comes with the required mappers for realm roles and client roles through the pre-defined client scope "roles". This ensures that any roles assigned to a user are included in the JWT tokens when using an OIDC client that has the "Full scope allowed" feature activated, the feature is enabled by default.

Creating a realm role

  • Navigate to Realm roles -> Create role
    • Role name, <realm role name> -> save

Creating a client role

  • Navigate to Clients -> <your client's id> -> Roles -> Create role
    • Role name, <client role name> -> save

Assign a role to a user

Users -> Username -> Role mapping -> Assign role -> filter by roles or clients and select -> Assign.

Keycloak "realm roles" can be authorized using the --allowed-role=<realm role name> option, while "client roles" can be evaluated using --allowed-role=<your client's id>:<client role name>.

You may limit the realm roles included in the JWT tokens for any given client by navigating to:
Clients -> <your client's id> -> Client scopes -> <your client's id>-dedicated -> Scope
Disabling Full scope allowed activates the Assign role option, allowing you to select which roles, if assigned to a user, will be included in the user's JWT tokens. This can be useful when a user has many associated roles, and you want to reduce the size and impact of the JWT token.


You may also do authorization on group memberships by using the OAuth2 Proxy option --allowed-group.
We will only do a brief description of creating the required client scope groups and refer you to read the Keycloak documentation.

To summarize, the steps required to authorize Keycloak group membership with OAuth2 Proxy are as follows:

  • Create a new Client Scope with the name groups in Keycloak.
    • Include a mapper of type Group Membership.
    • Set the "Token Claim Name" to groups or customize by matching it to the --oidc-groups-claim option of OAuth2 Proxy.
    • If the "Full group path" option is selected, you need to include a "/" separator in the group names defined in the --allowed-group option of OAuth2 Proxy. Example: "/groupname" or "/groupname/childgroup".

After creating the Client Scope named groups you will need to attach it to your client.
Clients -> <your client's id> -> Client scopes -> Add client scope -> Select groups and choose Optional and you should now have a client that maps group memberships into the JWT tokens so that Oauth2 Proxy may evaluate them.

Create a group by navigating to Groups -> Create group and add your test user as a member.

The OAuth2 Proxy option --allowed-group=/groupname will now allow you to filter on group membership

Keycloak also has the option of attaching roles to groups, please refer to the Keycloak documentation for more information.


To check if roles or groups are added to JWT tokens, you can preview a users token in the Keycloak console by following these steps: Clients -> <your client's id> -> Client scopes -> Evaluate.
Select a realm user and optional scope parameters such as groups, and generate the JSON representation of an access or id token to examine its contents.

GitLab Auth Provider

This auth provider has been tested against Gitlab version 12.X. Due to Gitlab API changes, it may not work for version prior to 12.X (see 994).

Whether you are using or self-hosting GitLab, follow these steps to add an application. Make sure to enable at least the openid, profile and email scopes, and set the redirect url to your application url e.g.

If you need projects filtering, add the extra read_api scope to your application.

The following config should be set to ensure that the oauth will work properly. To get a cookie secret follow these steps

--redirect-url="" // Should be the same as the redirect url for the application in gitlab

Restricting by group membership is possible with the following option:

--gitlab-group="mygroup,myothergroup": restrict logins to members of any of these groups (slug), separated by a comma

If you are using self-hosted GitLab, make sure you set the following to the appropriate URL:

--oidc-issuer-url="<your gitlab url>"

If your self-hosted GitLab is on a sub-directory (e.g. domain.tld/gitlab), as opposed to its own sub-domain (e.g. gitlab.domain.tld), you may need to add a redirect from domain.tld/oauth pointing at e.g. domain.tld/gitlab/oauth.

LinkedIn Auth Provider

For LinkedIn, the registration steps are:

  1. Create a new project:
  2. In the OAuth User Agreement section:
    • In default scope, select r_basicprofile and r_emailaddress.
    • In "OAuth 2.0 Redirect URLs", enter
  3. Fill in the remaining required fields and Save.
  4. Take note of the Consumer Key / API Key and Consumer Secret / Secret Key

Microsoft Azure AD Provider

For adding an application to the Microsoft Azure AD follow these steps to add an application.

Take note of your TenantId if applicable for your situation. The TenantId can be used to override the default common authorization server with a tenant specific server.

OpenID Connect Provider

OpenID Connect is a spec for OAUTH 2.0 + identity that is implemented by many major providers and several open source projects.

This provider was originally built against CoreOS Dex and we will use it as an example. The OpenID Connect Provider (OIDC) can also be used to connect to other Identity Providers such as Okta, an example can be found below.


To configure the OIDC provider for Dex, perform the following steps:

  1. Download Dex:

    go get

    See the getting started guide for more details.

  2. Setup oauth2-proxy with the correct provider and using the default ports and callbacks. Add a configuration block to the staticClients section of examples/config-dev.yaml:

    - id: oauth2-proxy
    - ''
    name: 'oauth2-proxy'
    secret: proxy
  3. Launch Dex: from $GOPATH/, run:

    bin/dex serve examples/config-dev.yaml
  4. In a second terminal, run the oauth2-proxy with the following args:

    -provider oidc
    -provider-display-name "My OIDC Provider"
    -client-id oauth2-proxy
    -client-secret proxy
    -email-domain kilgore.trout

    To serve the current working directory as a web site under the /static endpoint, add:

    -upstream file://$PWD/#/static/
  5. Test the setup by visiting or .

See also our local testing environment for a self-contained example using Docker and etcd as storage for Dex.


To configure the OIDC provider for Okta, perform the following steps:

  1. Log in to Okta using an administrative account. It is suggested you try this in preview first,
  2. (OPTIONAL) If you want to configure authorization scopes and claims to be passed on to multiple applications, you may wish to configure an authorization server for each application. Otherwise, the provided default will work.
  • Navigate to Security then select API
  • Click Add Authorization Server, if this option is not available you may require an additional license for a custom authorization server.
  • Fill out the Name with something to describe the application you are protecting. e.g. 'Example App'.
  • For Audience, pick the URL of the application you wish to protect:
  • Fill out a Description
  • Add any Access Policies you wish to configure to limit application access.
  • The default settings will work for other options. See Okta documentation for more information on Authorization Servers
  1. Navigate to Applications then select Add Application.
  • Select Web for the Platform setting.
  • Select OpenID Connect and click Create
  • Pick an Application Name such as Example App.
  • Set the Login redirect URI to
  • Under General set the Allowed grant types to Authorization Code and Refresh Token.
  • Leave the rest as default, taking note of the Client ID and Client Secret.
  • Under Assignments select the users or groups you wish to access your application.
  1. Create a configuration file like the following:

    provider = "oidc"
    redirect_url = ""
    oidc_issuer_url = ""
    upstreams = [
    email_domains = [
    client_id = "XXXXX"
    client_secret = "YYYYY"
    pass_access_token = true
    cookie_secret = "ZZZZZ"
    skip_provider_button = true

The oidc_issuer_url is based on URL from your Authorization Server's Issuer field in step 2, or simply . The client_id and client_secret are configured in the application settings. Generate a unique cookie_secret to encrypt the cookie.

Then you can start the oauth2-proxy with ./oauth2-proxy --config /etc/example.cfg

Okta - localhost

  1. Signup for developer account:
  2. Create New Web Application: https://${your-okta-domain}/dev/console/apps/new
  3. Example Application Settings for localhost:
    • Name: My Web App
    • Base URIs: http://localhost:4180/
    • Login redirect URIs: http://localhost:4180/oauth2/callback
    • Logout redirect URIs: http://localhost:4180/
    • Group assignments: Everyone
    • Grant type allowed: Authorization Code and Refresh Token
  4. Make note of the Client ID and Client secret, they are needed in a future step
  5. Make note of the default Authorization Server Issuer URI from: https://${your-okta-domain}/admin/oauth2/as
  6. Example config file /etc/localhost.cfg
    provider = "oidc"
    redirect_url = "http://localhost:4180/oauth2/callback"
    oidc_issuer_url = "https://${your-okta-domain}/oauth2/default"
    upstreams = [
    email_domains = [
    client_id = "XXX"
    client_secret = "YYY"
    pass_access_token = true
    cookie_secret = "ZZZ"
    cookie_secure = false
    skip_provider_button = true
    # Note: use the following for testing within a container
    # http_address = ""
  7. Then you can start the oauth2-proxy with ./oauth2-proxy --config /etc/localhost.cfg Provider is an OIDC provider for the US Government. If you are a US Government agency, you can contact the team through the contact information that you can find on and work with them to understand how to get accounts for integration/test and production access.

A developer guide is available here:, though this proxy handles everything but the data you need to create to register your application in the dashboard.

As a demo, we will assume that you are running your application that you want to secure locally on http://localhost:3000/, that you will be starting your proxy up on http://localhost:4180/, and that you have an agency integration account for testing.

First, register your application in the dashboard. The important bits are:

  • Identity protocol: make this Openid connect
  • Issuer: do what they say for OpenID Connect. We will refer to this string as ${LOGINGOV_ISSUER}.
  • Public key: This is a self-signed certificate in .pem format generated from a 2048 bit RSA private key. A quick way to do this is openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem -days 3650 -nodes -subj '/C=US/ST=Washington/L=DC/O=GSA/OU=18F/CN=localhost', The contents of the key.pem shall be referred to as ${OAUTH2_PROXY_JWT_KEY}.
  • Return to App URL: Make this be http://localhost:4180/
  • Redirect URIs: Make this be http://localhost:4180/oauth2/callback.
  • Attribute Bundle: Make sure that email is selected.

Now start the proxy up with the following options:

./oauth2-proxy -provider \
-client-id=${LOGINGOV_ISSUER} \
-redirect-url=http://localhost:4180/oauth2/callback \
-oidc-issuer-url= \
-cookie-secure=false \ \
-upstream=http://localhost:3000/ \
-cookie-secret=somerandomstring12341234567890AB \
-cookie-domain=localhost \
-skip-provider-button=true \
-pubjwk-url= \
-profile-url= \

You can also set all these options with environment variables, for use in cloud/docker environments. One tricky thing that you may encounter is that some cloud environments will pass in environment variables in a docker env-file, which does not allow multiline variables like a PEM file. If you encounter this, then you can create a jwt_signing_key.pem file in the top level directory of the repo which contains the key in PEM format and then do your docker build. The docker build process will copy that file into your image which you can then access by setting the OAUTH2_PROXY_JWT_KEY_FILE=/etc/ssl/private/jwt_signing_key.pem environment variable, or by setting --jwt-key-file=/etc/ssl/private/jwt_signing_key.pem on the commandline.

Once it is running, you should be able to go to http://localhost:4180/ in your browser, get authenticated by the integration server, and then get proxied on to your application running on http://localhost:3000/. In a real deployment, you would secure your application with a firewall or something so that it was only accessible from the proxy, and you would use real hostnames everywhere.

Skip OIDC discovery

Some providers do not support OIDC discovery via their issuer URL, so oauth2-proxy cannot simply grab the authorization, token and jwks URI endpoints from the provider's metadata.

In this case, you can set the --skip-oidc-discovery option, and supply those required endpoints manually:

    -provider oidc
-client-id oauth2-proxy
-client-secret proxy

Nextcloud Provider

The Nextcloud provider allows you to authenticate against users in your Nextcloud instance.

When you are using the Nextcloud provider, you must specify the urls via configuration, environment variable, or command line argument. Depending on whether your Nextcloud instance is using pretty urls your urls may be of the form /index.php/apps/oauth2/* or /apps/oauth2/*.

Refer to the OAuth2 documentation to setup the client id and client secret. Your "Redirection URI" will be

    -provider nextcloud
-client-id <from nextcloud admin>
-client-secret <from nextcloud admin>
-login-url="<your nextcloud url>/index.php/apps/oauth2/authorize"
-redeem-url="<your nextcloud url>/index.php/apps/oauth2/api/v1/token"
-validate-url="<your nextcloud url>/ocs/v2.php/cloud/user?format=json"

Note: in all cases the validate-url will not have the index.php.

DigitalOcean Auth Provider

  1. Create a new OAuth application
    • You can fill in the name, homepage, and description however you wish.
    • In the "Application callback URL" field, enter: https://oauth-proxy/oauth2/callback, substituting oauth2-proxy with the actual hostname that oauth2-proxy is running on. The URL must match oauth2-proxy's configured redirect URL.
  2. Note the Client ID and Client Secret.

To use the provider, pass the following options:

--client-id=<Client ID>
--client-secret=<Client Secret>

Alternatively, set the equivalent options in the config file. The redirect URL defaults to https://<requested host header>/oauth2/callback. If you need to change it, you can use the --redirect-url command-line option.

Bitbucket Auth Provider

  1. Add a new OAuth consumer
    • In "Callback URL" use https://<oauth2-proxy>/oauth2/callback, substituting <oauth2-proxy> with the actual hostname that oauth2-proxy is running on.
    • In Permissions section select:
      • Account -> Email
      • Team membership -> Read
      • Repositories -> Read
  2. Note the Client ID and Client Secret.

To use the provider, pass the following options:

--client-id=<Client ID>
--client-secret=<Client Secret>

The default configuration allows everyone with Bitbucket account to authenticate. To restrict the access to the team members use additional configuration option: --bitbucket-team=<Team name>. To restrict the access to only these users who has access to one selected repository use --bitbucket-repository=<Repository name>.

Gitea Auth Provider

  1. Create a new application: https://< your gitea host >/user/settings/applications
  2. Under Redirect URI enter the correct URL i.e. https://<proxied host>/oauth2/callback
  3. Note the Client ID and Client Secret.
  4. Pass the following options to the proxy:
--redirect-url="https://<proxied host>/oauth2/callback"
--client-id="< client_id as generated by Gitea >"
--client-secret="< client_secret as generated by Gitea >"
--login-url="https://< your gitea host >/login/oauth/authorize"
--redeem-url="https://< your gitea host >/login/oauth/access_token"
--validate-url="https://< your gitea host >/api/v1"

Email Authentication

To authorize by email domain use To authorize individual email addresses use --authenticated-emails-file=/path/to/file with one email per line. To authorize all email addresses use --email-domain=*.

Adding a new Provider

Follow the examples in the providers package to define a new Provider instance. Add a new case to providers.New() to allow oauth2-proxy to use the new Provider.